Various empirical techniques using customized instruments (Templeton and Sommer 1930; Thomas and others 1970a; Gupta and others 1984), as well as standard instrumental techniques such as textural profile analysis (Gupta and others 1984; Drake and others 1999; Kapoor and Metzger 2004, 2005) and low‐temperature dynamic rheological analysis (Drake and others 1999) have been utilized to evaluate process cheese hardness, fracturability, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, slicing ability, and elastic and viscous properties at low temperatures. Microstructural studies have described the changes in fat globule size and distribution (Rayan and others 1980) as well as rearrangement of the paracaseinate network (Heertje and others 1981; Heertje 1993; Lee and others 2003) in natural cheese during process cheese manufacture. Rate of cooling after manufacture Piska and Štětina (2003) manufactured PCS‐type products using a blend of Dutch‐type hard and semihard cheeses. Pumpability during manufacture3. Once again, the control of heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of whey protein with respect to the size/gelation capacity of the resultant reaction products is pertinent to the functionality of casein−whey protein coprecipitates (CWPCPs) (Donato & Guyomarc’h, 2009; Mleko & Foegeding, 1999). Therefore, while formulating a process cheese, manufacturers often try to control the final chemical properties of process cheese through appropriate selection of ingredients in order to achieve a process cheese formula that will have a specific functional property after it is manufactured. In a subsequent study on the effect of mixing speed on the microstructure of PCF, we performed cryoscanning electron microscopy on the PCF (with 2.5% trisodium citrate) manufactured by Garimella Purna and others (2006). Critical phosphate salt concentrations leading to altered micellar casein structures and functional intermediates. They found that as the processing time of the PC increased, there was a significant increase in the firmness and degree of elasticity and a significant decrease in their meltability. 1 decade ago. The effect of natural cheese pH on the state and amount of calcium and phosphorus in natural cheese is discussed subsequently. The fat phase is suspended in this calcium–paracaseinate phosphate complex. Gums do not directly affect any of the above‐mentioned formulation parameters in the process cheese; however, since PCS has a high moisture content (up to 60%), the major function of gums in PCS is to bind water and to provide appropriate viscosity/thickening to the product and improve its mouthfeel. A previous study has shown the effect of the final pH of process cheese on its firmness (Templeton and Sommer 1932b). It is also interesting to note that the volume of low fat/light process cheese increased substantially (22.3%) between 2004 and 2005 (IDFA 2006). Processed cheeses have a distinct milder flavor profile to that of natural cheeses, which frequently appeals to consumers encountering the taste of cheese for the first time. The most popular empirical melt test for process cheese is the L.D. and Bacillus spp. Selection and grinding of natural cheese (on the basis of age, pH, flavor, and intact casein content), Selection of appropriate emulsifying salt, Formulation and computation of other ingredients (in order to meet the targeted moisture, fat, salt, and pH values of the final product as per government regulations), Ingredient selection and formulation The 1st stage of process cheese manufacture involves selection of ingredients and preparation of a formulation. However, the availability of natural cheese (type and age), cost, availability of other ingredients, and presence or absence of rework varies from day to day. Regulatory Measures for Microbial Toxins. Process cheese supermarket sales in the U.S.A. in 2005 based on form (Source: IDFA 2006). Kalab and others (1987) found that the types of rework, as well as the amount used, have an effect on the final properties of PCF (43% moisture, 24% fat, pH 5.5 to 5.7, and 2.7% added emulsifying salt in the form of trisodium citrate). II. Pink discoloration. Therefore, when formulating a process cheese, the manufacturers should ensure that the final lactose content in the process cheese should not exceed 7.48% for PCF (44% moisture product) and 10.20% for PCS (60% moisture product). Effect of the Compositional Factors and Processing Conditions on the Creaming Reaction During Process Cheese Manufacturing. Different ingredients affect the physicochemical properties, flavor, and the functional properties of process cheese in different ways. This phenomenon gives rise to fat emulsified by a uniform closely knit protein gel network (Heertje and others 1981; Marchesseau and Cuq 1995; Ennis and others 1998; Lee and others 2003; Zhong and others 2004). Over the years, researchers have modified the Schreiber Melt Test to overcome some of its shortcomings (Bogenrief and Olson 1995; Muthukumarappan and others 1999a). This temperature‐induced denaturation of β‐lactoglobulin exposes the free sulfhydryl group, which has the capability of crosslinking with other β‐lactoglobulin and κ‐casein molecules via disulfide bonds (Sawyer and others 1963; Wong and others 1996). Their results indicated that even after the final pH of the PCS was adjusted to 5.4 to 5.5, the PCS batches made using cheddar cheese with higher pH were harder and less meltable when compared to the PCS made using cheddar cheese with normal pH at all stages of ripening. Accordingly, as the amount of natural cheese is reduced in PCP formulations due to replacement with other ingredients, the resulting products may need to be redefined in accordance with relevant national legislation as summarized by Guinee (2016). Effect of emulsifier salts on textural and flavor properties of processed cheeses. The results clearly indicate that at high mixing speed, the PCF showed a larger number of fat globules/100 μm2, a lower mean fat globule diameter, and a more uniform distribution in fat globule diameter as compared to PCF manufactured at low mixing speeds. Alternatively, CPs can be classified according to the proportion of cheese solids, as a percentage of total dry matter: high cheese solids (∼95%, w/w), medium cheese solids (>50%, w/w), or low cheese solids (<50%, w/w). The microstructural results from their study showed that as the processing time of the PC increased, there was a decrease in the size of fat globules, thereby indicating a stronger emulsification in PC with increasing processing time. Figure 4 indicates the cryoscanning electron microscopy images and the distribution in fat globule diameters of the 2 PCF batches. Product innovation in these cheese categories relies substantially on the availability of emerging novel ingredients to create new textures or just simply facilitate least-cost formulation objectives by virtue of enhanced functionality of added proteins; these can have a marked influence on the physicochemical and rheological properties, stability, and usage appeal characteristics of pasteurized PCPs and ACPs (Abou El-Nour, Schurer, Omar, & Buchheim, 1996; Guinee, 2009; O’Riordan, Duggan, O’Sullivan, & Noronha, 2011; Savello, Ernstrom, & Kaláb, 1989). Authors are with Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center, Dept. Caseins in cheese contain the amino acid tryptophan, which is a naturally occurring fluorescent substance. The 1st objective of this article is to extensively describe the physicochemical properties and microstructure, as well as the functional properties, of process cheese and highlight the various analytical techniques used to evaluate these properties. Schreiber melt test3. The composition of processed cheese in terms of the relatively high pH (5.6–6.0) and moisture content combined with low redox potential (anaerobic conditions) can result in spore germination and growth, which may result in subsequent spoilage due to production of gas, off-odors, and digestion of the cheese.