Particularly in the title essay of this collection, Eco examines tourism from a semiotic perspective with attention to questions of authenticity and what he calls "the absolute fake.". And although tourist travel throughout most of the nineteenth century remained primarily a privilege of wealthy classes, the growth of railroad transportation made travel available to at least a few members of the middle classes. Visitors in China intent on experiencing authentic Chinese culture may have more interest in a local village's Lantern Festival than in a large celebration that is widely promoted in tourist literature. Tourists encounter cultural otherness by leaving their familiar surroundings, but touristic practices tend to domesticate unfamiliar places and novel experiences by making them into objects of consumption. Yet despite the difficulty of distinguishing between them, the practice of tourism has origins largely independent of the traditions of religious pilgrimage. ." It is difficult to give a specific definition of religious tourism and the reason behind it is that cultural and religious travel are used synonymously. At the base of the mountain, St. Catherine’s Monastery is home to a small community of Greek Orthodox monks. American Journal of Semiotics 1, nos. 94–116. Thus, the space of Tepeyac becomes simultaneously a place of religious practice and a place of touristic indulgence. Chicago, 1998. Hence, they make these spaces into touristic places that remain distinct from the sacred places of religious people. 1–2 (1981): 127–140. Synagogues around the world are, and have always been, built with the holy arch facing Jerusalem. Following the Thirty Years' War of the seventeenth century, travelers settled into a conventional pattern of educational travel that would be the basis for what became known in the eighteenth century as the Grand Tour. Among the most auspicious of places that tourists seek out are natural features regarded as sacred by one or more religious traditions. Not only do modern people travel far more than ever before, but as some commentators insist, they are tourists most of the time, even in their own homes and communities. In Japan, the Ise temple complex, the most sacred site of the Shintō religion, is a favorite destination for tourists. The Grand Mosque or the Al-Masjid Al-Haram is the holiest place for Muslims in the world. There seems no end to the types and locales of religious sites and celebrations that appeal to the curiosities of touristic travelers. Janakpur – A Center of Religious and Cultural Tourism Janakpur is a city in the Terai region in south-central Nepal and is an important pilgrimage site for Hindus. They also include communication networks that facilitate travel, especially telecommunications and the Internet, but also television and radio broadcast media, newspapers and magazines, and other forms of mass communication. In the Hindu tradition, Benares, India, serves as a favorite destination of tourists, and Buddhist stupas throughout Asia attract both religious and nonreligious travelers. It is also one of the oldest surviving Christian churches, where Jesus is believed to have been buried and resurrected. Some of the religious places such as Mecca in Saudi Arabia, Fatima in Portugal and Lourdes in France attract millions of religious tourists, charity workers, missionaries and humanitarians creating a huge financial transaction in the destination. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. These include the rise of humanism beginning in Renaissance Italy and spreading northward; the Protestant reformations of the sixteenth century that shook the foundations of traditional church authority in Christian Europe; and the Enlightenments of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which introduced new models of political authority and modern forms of subjectivity. An examination of how social-scientific studies tend to represent international tourism. Brockman, Norbert C. Encyclopedia of Sacred Places. Because Hebron is referenced numerous times in the book of Genesis, many Jews place Hebron as the birthplace of Jewish civilization. The original meaning of "shrine" in Old English (scrin) and Latin (scrinium) suggests that it is a box or repository.