From April to June, they care for their young.  All four subspecies are sold in the Canary Islands and in Australia, and they are traded via the CITES convention. It has disjunct native ranges in Africa and South Asia, and is now introduced into many other parts of the world where feral populations have established themselves and are bred for the exotic pet trade. The basic colour is green, and all four subspecies have the characteristic yellow ring around the hindneck; wings and tail are a mixture of green and blue. Their average single-wing length is about 15 to 17.5 cm (5.9 to 6.9 in). , The European populations became established during the mid-to-late 20th century. Part B: Fact sheets for growers, "Bauer, Ferdinand, 1760-1826 - natural history drawings", "Aboriginal names of bird species in south-west Western Australia, with suggestions for their adoption into common usage", "Eucalypt hybrids in south-west Western Australia", "Parrot damage in agroforestry in the greater than 450 mm rainfall zone of Western Australia", "The status and impact of the Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus moluccanus) in South-West Western Australia", "Sustainable Economic Use of Native Australian Birds and Reptiles", "NATURE CONSERVATION LEGISLATION AMENDMENT REGULATION (No. It breeds further north than any other parrot species.  The species is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) because its population appears to be increasing, but its popularity as a pet and unpopularity with farmers have reduced its numbers in some parts of its native range..  Currently, four subspecies are recognised, each with a distinct range. The Australian ringneck is active during the day and can be found in eucalypt woodlands and eucalypt-lined watercourses. It is also found throughout Lebanon, Israel, Iran, the UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman.  Fledgling survival rates have been measured at 75%. Sailaja, R., Kotak, V. C., Sharp, P. J., Schmedemann, R., Haase, E. (1988). They are a herbivorous and non-migratory species.  It has been suggested that feral parrots could endanger populations of native British birds, and that the rose-ringed parakeet could even be culled as a result, although this is not currently recommended by conservation organisations. Wild flocks also fly several miles to forage in farmlands and orchards, causing extensive damage. Rose-ringed parakeets are popular as pets and they have a long history in aviculture. , This species eats a wide range of foods that include nectar, insects, seeds, fruit, and native and introduced bulbs. He called it Psittacus zonarius "zoned parrot". Four subspecies are recognised, though they differ little: The Indian subspecies are both larger than the African subspecies. The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. B. z. semitorquatus Elsewhere in Britain, smaller feral populations have become established from time to time (e.g., at Sefton Park and Greenbank Park in Liverpool, Studland, and Swanage Dorset, Kensington Gardens, Nottingham, south Manchester and even as far north as Edinburgh). , A popular pet, the rose-ringed parakeet has been released in a wide range of cities around the world, giving it an environment with few predators where their preferred diet of seeds, nuts, fruits, and berries is available from suburban gardens and bird feeders. , The classification of this species is still debated, and molecular research by Joseph and Wilke in 2006 found that the complex split genetically into two clades—one roughly correlating with B. z. barnardi and the other with the other three forms; B. z. macgillivrayi was more closely related to B. z. zonarius than to the neighbouring B. z. barnardi. , In the Netherlands, the feral population in the four largest urban areas (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht and especially in The Hague) was estimated at 10,000 birds in 2010, almost double the number of birds estimated in 2004. Feral parakeets have also been observed in Abbey Wood, Bostall Heath, Bostall Woods and Plumstead Common. B. z. occidentalis has been synonymised with B. z.  In Germany, these birds are found along the Rhine in all major urban areas such as Cologne, Düsseldorf (about 800 birds), Bonn, Ludwigshafen, Heidelberg and Speyer, Wiesbaden and Mainz, and Worms. , Although the species is endemic, the species is considered not threatened, but in Western Australia, the Twenty-eight subspecies (B. z. semitorquatus) gets locally displaced by the introduced rainbow lorikeets that aggressively compete for nesting places. There are also apparently stable populations in the US (Florida, California and Hawaii) and small self-sustaining populations in Ankara, İzmir, İstanbul (concentrated in parks), Tunis, Tripoli and Tehran (concentrated in the north side of the city). Identification: The yellow belly, lighter green colour and lack of red band distinguishes it from the mallee ringneck. In Western Australia, the ringneck competes for nesting space with the rainbow lorikeet, an introduced species. Colour mutations of the Indian rose-ringed parakeet subspecies have become widely available in recent years. Both males and females have the ability to mimic human speech.  In Egypt during the spring, they feed on mulberry and in summer they feed on dates and nest inside palm trees and eat from sunflower and corn fields. In the 1960s many Japanese people became pet owners for the first time and the parakeet was widely imported as a pet. The underparts of B. z. barnardi are turquoise-green with an irregular orange-yellow band across the abdomen; the back and mantle are deep blackish-blue and this subspecies has a prominent red frontal band. They do not have life mates and often breed with another partner during the following breeding season. Except for extreme tropical and highland areas, the species has adapted to all conditions. The researchers felt it was premature to reorganise the classification of the complex until more study was undertaken. Indian Ringneck Parrot. It has established itself on a large scale in Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, and especially the UK. The ancient Greeks kept the Indian subspecies P. krameri manillensis, and the ancient Romans kept the African subspecies P. krameri krameri. While the Indian Ringneck parrot or parakeet is not an expert at mimicking the human voice, this bird uses its own bird voice to capture mood and sentiment. The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), also known as the ring-necked parakeet, is a medium-sized parrot in the genus Psittacula, of the family Psittacidae. Identification: The red band and green belly distinguishes it from the Port Lincoln parrot. zonarius. Overall, though, the ringneck is not a threatened species.  See Feral Birds section below. In trials of growing hybrid eucalypt trees in dry environments parrots, especially the Port Lincoln parrot, caused severe damage to the crowns of the younger trees during the research period between 2000–3. Their average lifespan is 15 years.  Intermediates exist between all subspecies except for between B. z. zonarius and B. z.  Parakeet numbers have been highest in the south-west of London, although the population has since spread rapidly, and large flocks of birds can be observed in places such as Crystal Palace Park, Battersea Park, Buckhurst Hill, Richmond Park, Wimbledon Common, Greenwich Park, and Hampstead Heath, as well as Surrey and Berkshire. macgillivrayi. , Breeding season for the northern populations starts in June or July, while the central and southern populations breed from August to February, but this can be delayed when climatic conditions are unfavourable. One of the few parrot species that have successfully adapted to living in disturbed habitats, it has withstood the onslaught of urbanisation and deforestation. (1994). , In the United Kingdom and especially within London, parakeets face predation by native birds of prey and owls, including the Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), Eurasian hobby (F. subbuteo) and Tawny owl (Strix aluco).  Intermediates have been associated with land clearing for agriculture in southern Western Australia. Treatments of genus Barnardius have previously recognised two species, the Port Lincoln parrot (Barnardius zonarius) and the mallee ringneck (Barnardius barnardi), but due to these readily interbreeding at the contact zone they are usually regarded as a single species B. zonarius with subspecific descriptions. , The genus name Psittacula is a diminutive of Latin psittacus, "parrot", and the specific krameri commemorates the Austrian naturalist Wilhelm Heinrich Kramer..